Cómo escribir la aplicación iOS puramente en C

Leí aquí. ¿ Aprende C antes de Objective-C?

Por lo general, luego reemploop un código Obj-C con código C puro (después de todo, puedes mezclarlos tanto como quieras, el contenido de un método Obj-C puede ser completamente, código C puro)

¿Es esto cierto?

¿Es posible build una aplicación de iPhone puramente en el lenguaje de progtwigción C?

Maldita sea, me tomó un time pero lo entendí:

C principal:

#include <CoreFoundation/CoreFoundation.h> #include <objc/runtime.h> #include <objc/message.h> // This is a hack. Because we are writing in C, we cannot out and include // <UIKit/UIKit.h>, as that uses Objective-C constructs. // however, neither can we give the full function declaration, like this: // int UIApplicationMain (int argc, char *argv[], NSString *principalClassName, NSString *delegateClassName); // So, we rely on the fact that for both the i386 & ARM architectures, // the registers for parameters passed in remain the same whether or not // you are using VA_ARGS. This is actually the basis of the objective-c // runtime (objc_msgSend), so we are probably fine here, this would be // the last thing I would expect to break. extern int UIApplicationMain(int, ...); // Entry point of the application. If you don't know what this is by now, // then you probably shouldn't be reading the rest of this post. int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { // Create an @autoreleasepool, using the old-stye API. // Note that while NSAutoreleasePool IS deprecated, it still exists // in the APIs for a reason, and we leverage that here. In a perfect // world we wouldn't have to worry about this, but, remember, this is C. id autoreleasePool = objc_msgSend(objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("NSAutoreleasePool"), sel_registerName("alloc")), sel_registerName("init")); // Notice the use of CFSTR here. We cannot use an objective-c string // literal @"someStr", as that would be using objective-c, obviously. UIApplicationMain(argc, argv, nil, CFSTR("AppDelegate")); objc_msgSend(autoreleasePool, sel_registerName("drain")); } 

AppDelegate.c:

 #import <objc/runtime.h> #import <objc/message.h> // This is equivalent to creating a @class with one public variable named 'window'. struct AppDel { Class isa; id window; }; // This is a strong reference to the class of the AppDelegate // (same as [AppDelegate class]) Class AppDelClass; // this is the entry point of the application, same as -application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions: // note the fact that we use `void *` for the 'application' and 'options' fields, as we need no reference to them for this to work. A generic id would suffice here as well. BOOL AppDel_didFinishLaunching(struct AppDel *self, SEL _cmd, void *application, void *options) { // we +alloc and -initWithFrame: our window here, so that we can have it show on screen (eventually). // this entire method is the objc-runtime based version of the standard View-Based application's launch code, so nothing here really should surprise you. // one thing important to note, though is that we use `sel_getUid()` instead of @selector(). // this is because @selector is an objc language construct, and the application would not have been created in C if I used @selector. self->window = objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("UIWindow"), sel_getUid("alloc")); self->window = objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("initWithFrame:"), (struct CGRect) { 0, 0, 320, 480 }); // here, we are creating our view controller, and our view. note the use of objc_getClass, because we cannot reference UIViewController directly in C. id viewController = objc_msgSend(objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("UIViewController"), sel_getUid("alloc")), sel_getUid("init")); // creating our custom view class, there really isn't too much // to say here other than we are hard-coding the screen's bounds, // because returning a struct from a `objc_msgSend()` (via // [[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds]) requires a different function call // and is finicky at best. id view = objc_msgSend(objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("View"), sel_getUid("alloc")), sel_getUid("initWithFrame:"), (struct CGRect) { 0, 0, 320, 480 }); // here we simply add the view to the view controller, and add the viewController to the window. objc_msgSend(objc_msgSend(viewController, sel_getUid("view")), sel_getUid("addSubview:"), view); objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("setRootViewController:"), viewController); // finally, we display the window on-screen. objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("makeKeyAndVisible")); return YES; } // note the use of the gcc attribute extension (constructor). // Basically, this lets us run arbitrary code before program startup, // for more information read here: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2053029 __attribute__((constructor)) static void initAppDel() { // This is objc-runtime gibberish at best. We are creating a class with the // name "AppDelegate" that is a subclass of "UIResponder". Note we do not need // to register for the UIApplicationDelegate protocol, that really is simply for // Xcode's autocomplete, we just need to implement the method and we are golden. AppDelClass = objc_allocateClassPair(objc_getClass("UIResponder"), "AppDelegate", 0); // Here, we tell the objc runtime that we have a variable named "window" of type 'id' class_addIvar(AppDelClass, "window", sizeof(id), 0, "@"); // We tell the objc-runtime that we have an implementation for the method // -application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:, and link that to our custom // function defined above. Notice the final parameter. This tells the runtime // the types of arguments received by the function. class_addMethod(AppDelClass, sel_getUid("application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:"), (IMP) AppDel_didFinishLaunching, "i@:@@"); // Finally we tell the runtime that we have finished describing the class and // we can let the rest of the application use it. objc_registerClassPair(AppDelClass); } 

View.c

 #include <objc/runtime.h> // This is a strong reference to the class of our custom view, // In case we need it in the future. Class ViewClass; // This is a simple -drawRect implementation for our class. We could have // used a UILabel or something of that sort instead, but I felt that this // stuck with the C-based mentality of the application. void View_drawRect(id self, SEL _cmd, struct CGRect rect) { // We are simply getting the graphics context of the current view, // so we can draw to it CGContextRef context = UIGraphicsGetCurrentContext(); // Then we set it's fill color to white so that we clear the background. // Note the cast to (CGFloat []). Otherwise, this would give a warning // saying "invalid cast from type 'int' to 'CGFloat *', or // 'extra elements in initializer'. Also note the assumption of RGBA. // If this wasn't a demo application, I would strongly recommend against this, // but for the most part you can be pretty sure that this is a safe move // in an iOS application. CGContextSetFillColor(context, (CGFloat []){ 1, 1, 1, 1 }); // here, we simply add and draw the rect to the screen CGContextAddRect(context, (struct CGRect) { 0, 0, 320, 480 }); CGContextFillPath(context); // and we now set the drawing color to networking, then add another rectangle // and draw to the screen CGContextSetFillColor(context, (CGFloat []) { 1, 0, 0, 1 }); CGContextAddRect(context, (struct CGRect) { 10, 10, 20, 20 }); CGContextFillPath(context); } // Once again we use the (constructor) attribute. generally speaking, // having many of these is a very bad idea, but in a small application // like this, it really shouldn't be that big of an issue. __attribute__((constructor)) static void initView() { // Once again, just like the app delegate, we tell the runtime to // create a new class, this time a subclass of 'UIView' and named 'View'. ViewClass = objc_allocateClassPair(objc_getClass("UIView"), "View", 0); // and again, we tell the runtime to add a function called -drawRect: // to our custom view. Note that there is an error in the type-specification // of this method, as I do not know the @encode sequence of 'CGRect' off // of the top of my head. As a result, there is a chance that the rect // parameter of the method may not get passed properly. class_addMethod(ViewClass, sel_getUid("drawRect:"), (IMP) View_drawRect, "v@:"); // And again, we tell the runtime that this class is now valid to be used. // At this point, the application should run and display the screenshot shown below. objc_registerClassPair(ViewClass); } 

Es feo, pero funciona.

Si desea download esto, puede getlo desde mi dropbox aquí.

Puede getlo de mi repository GitHub aquí :

Captura de pantalla

Objective-C es un superset del lenguaje C, por lo que teóricamente es posible escribir un progtwig completamente en C, sin embargo, a less que esté completamente versado en OpenGL ES , necesitará hacer al less algunos objC ( muestra Even Rich tiene una const NSString * ), de lo contrario tendrás que escribir las vistas tú mismo.

Bien, lo anterior es completamente incorrecto. Déjame decir, estoy asombrado. Rich logró este noble objective, así que lo pasé a la Mac (fuente aquí ). Los files a continuación no tienen encabezados, no enlazan con Cocoa, ni el proyecto tiene una punta:

AppDelegate.m

 #include <objc/runtime.h> #include <objc/message.h> extern id NSApp; struct AppDel { Class isa; //Will be an NSWindow later, for now, it's id, because we cannot use pointers to ObjC classes id window; }; // This is a strong reference to the class of the AppDelegate // (same as [AppDelegate class]) Class AppDelClass; BOOL AppDel_didFinishLaunching(struct AppDel *self, SEL _cmd, id notification) { //alloc NSWindow self->window = objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("NSWindow"), sel_getUid("alloc")); //init NSWindow //Adjust frame. Window would be about 50*50 px without this //specify window type. We want a resizeable window that we can close. //use retained backing because this thing is small anyhow //return no because this is the main window, and should be shown immediately self->window = objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("initWithContentRect:styleMask:backing:defer:"),(NSRect){0,0,1024,460}, (NSTitledWindowMask|NSClosableWindowMask|NSResizableWindowMask|NSMiniaturizableWindowMask),NSBackingStoreRetained,NO); //send alloc and init to our view class. Love the nested objc_msgSends! id view = objc_msgSend(objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("View"), sel_getUid("alloc")), sel_getUid("initWithFrame:"), (struct CGRect) { 0, 0, 320, 480 }); // here we simply add the view to the window. objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("setContentView:"), view); objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("becomeFirstResponder")); //makeKeyOrderFront: NSWindow to show in bottom left corner of the screen objc_msgSend(self->window, sel_getUid("makeKeyAndOrderFront:"), self); return YES; } static void initAppDel() { //Our appDelegate should be NSObject, but if you want to go the hard route, make this a class pair of NSApplication and try initing those awful delegate methods! AppDelClass = objc_allocateClassPair((Class) objc_getClass("NSObject"), "AppDelegate", 0); //Change the implementation of applicationDidFinishLaunching: so we don't have to use ObjC when this is called by the system. class_addMethod(AppDelClass, sel_getUid("applicationDidFinishLaunching:"), (IMP) AppDel_didFinishLaunching, "i@:@"); objc_registerClassPair(AppDelClass); } void init_app(void) { objc_msgSend( objc_getClass("NSApplication"), sel_getUid("shanetworkingApplication")); if (NSApp == NULL) { fprintf(stderr,"Failed to initialized NSApplication... terminating...\n"); return; } id appDelObj = objc_msgSend( objc_getClass("AppDelegate"), sel_getUid("alloc")); appDelObj = objc_msgSend(appDelObj, sel_getUid("init")); objc_msgSend(NSApp, sel_getUid("setDelegate:"), appDelObj); objc_msgSend(NSApp, sel_getUid("run")); } //there doesn't need to be a main.m because of this little beauty here. int main(int argc, char** argv) { //Initialize a valid app delegate object just like [NSApplication shanetworkingApplication]; initAppDel(); //Initialize the run loop, just like [NSApp run]; this function NEVER returns until the app closes successfully. init_app(); //We should close acceptably. return EXIT_SUCCESS; } 

View.m

 #include <objc/runtime.h> #include <objc/message.h> #include <ApplicationServices/ApplicationServices.h> // This is a strong reference to the class of our custom view, // In case we need it in the future. Class ViewClass; // This is a simple -drawRect implementation for our class. We could have // used a UILabel or something of that sort instead, but I felt that this // stuck with the C-based mentality of the application. void View_drawRect(id self, SEL _cmd, CGRect rect) { //make a networking NSColor object with its convenience method id networking = objc_msgSend(objc_getClass("NSColor"), sel_getUid("networkingColor")); // fill target rect with networking, because this is it! NSRect rect1 = NSMakeRect ( 21,21,210,210 ); objc_msgSend(networking, sel_getUid("set")); NSRectFill ( rect1 ); } // Once again we use the (constructor) attribute. generally speaking, // having many of these is a very bad idea, but in a small application // like this, it really shouldn't be that big of an issue. __attribute__((constructor)) static void initView() { // Once again, just like the app delegate, we tell the runtime to // create a new class, this time a subclass of 'UIView' and named 'View'. ViewClass = objc_allocateClassPair((Class) objc_getClass("NSView"), "View", 0); // and again, we tell the runtime to add a function called -drawRect: // to our custom view. Note that there is an error in the type-specification // of this method, as I do not know the @encode sequence of 'CGRect' off // of the top of my head. As a result, there is a chance that the rect // parameter of the method may not get passed properly. class_addMethod(ViewClass, sel_getUid("drawRect:"), (IMP) View_drawRect, "v@:"); // And again, we tell the runtime that this class is now valid to be used. // At this point, the application should run and display the screenshot shown below. objc_registerClassPair(ViewClass); } 

prefix.pch

 // // Prefix header for all source files of the 'CBasedMacApp' target in the 'CBasedMacApp' project // #ifdef __OBJC__ #import <Foundation/Foundation.h> #import <AppKit/AppKit.h> #endif 

introduzca la descripción de la imagen aquí

Leí aquí. ¿ Aprende C antes de Objective-C?

Por lo general, luego reemploop un código Obj-C con código C puro (después de todo, puedes mezclarlos tanto como quieras, el contenido de un método Obj-C puede ser completamente, código C puro)

¿Es esto cierto?

¿Podría build una aplicación de iPhone exclusivamente en el lenguaje de progtwigción C?

El pasaje citado es verdadero, pero la respuesta a su pregunta es no.

Para ilustrar a qué contestó Mecki sobre esa otra pregunta:

 - (void) drawRect:(CGRect)dirtyRect { //Objective-C CGContextRef context = UIGraphicsGetCurrentContext(); //C CGContextSetRGBFillColor(context, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); //C CGContextFillRect(context, dirtyRect); //C } //Objective-C (balances above “- (void) drawRect:…” line) 

No hay nada más que un código C puro dentro de este método, pero el método en sí mismo es el código Objective-C, como es la class que contiene este método.

Entonces, es posible hacer lo que Mecki dijo, pero no se puede (prácticamente, como lo demostró Richard J. Ross III, es técnicamente posible, pero se escribe bastante) escribir un progtwig Cocoa Touch completo en C. puro.

En realidad, parte del código publicado aquí, mientras está escrito en C, sigue llamando al código objective C :). No sé si eso realmente se ajusta al escenario del póster original cuando preguntó

¿Es posible build una aplicación de iPhone puramente en el lenguaje de progtwigción C?

pero estoy de acuerdo con que la gente diga que, hablando en general y para una aplicación con una GUI, debería escribir su GUI en OpenGL (que es C).

Creo que eso es lo que hacen la mayoría de los juegos, ¿verdad? Aunque no estoy seguro de si hay acceso a la E / S del iPhone (la pantalla táctil, por ejemplo) en C.

¡Por último, pero no less importante, los chicos que escribieron el código anterior rock! 🙂